Chemical substances or materials that are made and used on a very small scale are known as nanomaterials. Nanomaterials are created to have unique properties compared to materials that do not have nanoscale features, such as greater strength, chemical reactivity, or conductivity. Nanoparticles exist in nature and can be made from a range of materials, including carbon or minerals like silver, although nanomaterials must have at least one dimension of fewer than 100 nanometres by definition. The majority of nanoscale materials are too small to be seen with the naked eye or even with standard lab microscopes. Built nanomaterials (ENMs) are materials that have been engineered to such a small scale that they can take on unique optical, magnetic, electrical, and other properties. These emergent features have the potential to have huge implications in fields such as electronics, medicine, and others.
The application of chemistry in the design and synthesis of materials having intriguing or potentially valuable physical properties, such as magnetic, optical, structural, or catalytic capabilities, is known as materials chemistry. It also entails the characterisation, processing, and understanding of these chemicals at the molecular level. Materials chemistry research crosses the boundaries of traditional chemical sub-disciplines, bringing together organic, inorganic, polymer, physical, biological, and analytical chemistry.