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4th Edition of

Chemistry World Conference

June 17-19, 2024 | Paris, France

Chemistry 2024

Gholamreza Heydari

Speaker at Chemistry World Conference 2024 - Gholamreza Heydari
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Title : Evaluation of the effects of PAKDAM, an invented device to get nitrous oxide and oxygen, in the consumers – A report of pilot study in Tehran 2022


Background: Many studies showed that the combination of Nitrous oxide (N2O) and Oxygen (O2) led to a reduction pain, greater respiration and euphoria. About a decade the device, which was called PAKDAM (means clean inspiration) was invented in Iran and has been used in some cafe to prepare N2O and O2 as a new instrument instead of water pipe. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of Pakdam and investigating its short and midterm side effects in users.

Methods: In a case-control pilot study which was done between September 2021 and March 2022, 152 individuals were selected and divided into two groups: 76 consumers (case) and 76 non- consumers (control). In terms of smoking status, both groups were divided into two groups of 36 smokers and 36 nonsmokers. Participants in this study have read and signed the participation form and filled out the questionnaire then their vital signs, O2 saturation, CO expiratory and spirometry test were done.

Findings: No significant difference was observed between case and control groups in demographic indicators. The subjects who used the device had a mean blood pressure of 123.71±16.11, oxygen saturation of 97.2±1.9, exhaled carbon monoxide of 9.8±5.5, and an FVC / FEV1 ratio of 88.5±7.9. These figures in people who did not use the device were (137.79±18.15) - (94.1±4.2) - (14.3 ± 9.3) and (83.9 ± 10.4), respectively. In addition to the effects on the respiratory system, consumers had lower heart rates and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

Conclusion: The blood oxygen level and FEV1 / FVC ratio were higher in people using Pakdam and the amount of exhaled carbon monoxide and blood pressure were lower. This condition was more common in smokers and less in non-smokers. It is possible to see the favorable effects of using Pakdam device on people especially in smokers.


Gholamreza Heydari currently is director of Tobacco Prevention & Control Research Center based in Tehran, Iran, completed his MD in 1996 and he had MPH and PhD degree on epidemiology from Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Dr. Heydari is former director of WHO Collaborating Center on Tobacco Control in Eastern Mediterranean region. He is the members of Guideline Development Group (GDG) of WHO Clinical Treatment Guideline for Tobacco Cessation, 2022. Dr. Heydari is chairman and editor in chief of monthly tobacco control journal in Iran and is the senior associate editor of tobacco regulatory science journal.

He is conducting several studies on tobacco control and smoking cessation in Iran. Now he is directing a national pilot study on Oxygen water pipe a new invented instrument for replacing tobacco water pipe in the Iran.

He, as a national expert on tobacco control program, had more than 80 papers internationally. He attended many training courses such as Classical Method in Data Analysis, Erasmus Medical University, Netherlands, December 2001 and Tobacco Free Initiative for Clinicians, St. George’s Hospital, London, England, July 2002 and Smoking Cessation, European Respiratory Society School, Bucharest, Romania, December 2004 and Methods in Epidemiologic Clinical and Operations in Research, American Thoracic Society, Cesme, Turkey, 2011 and 2012.