The pollution of water sources with petroleum products is one of the most important and actual ecological problem. Every year, oil spills create a serious damage to the ecosystem, which leads to the death of plants, algae, birds and fish. At the same time, wastewater from steel and metallurgical plants, domestic wastewater and storm water cause significant environmental damage.
There are various technologies for water treatment from petroleum products available. Special place among them is occupied by membrane because they have many advantages such as high technological efficiency, multiple use capability and environmental friendliness. Besides, membranes can use for oil spill response, filtration of waste water, separation of technical water and other application. Development of bio-based membranes for separation of water/oil mixture is one of the perspective ways for protective of environmental from pollutions.
In this work the review about bio-based membranes made from natural materials is presented. Methods of preparation, microstructure and properties of textile and aerogel membranes are discussed. It is shown that textile membranes have a number of advantages over aerogel membranes, such as low cost and simple production technology. Cotton textiles modified by biopolymers occupy a special place among perspective eco-friendly products for separation of oil/water mixtures and mixtures of organic solvents, fats, vegetable oil with water.
Microgels are polymer colloid particles with diameter less than 1 micron that can swell in water. Our research program is focused on the modification of biopolymers in aqueous suspensions and production of commercially available microgels for the modification of cotton textile under trademark Spilltex®. These biopolymers are obtained from natural raw materials, for example food industry waste, such as beet pulp. They are non-toxic and do not contain substances that can contaminate environment. demonstrates super hydrophilic properties. Flow of purified water through the membrane is more than 30 times higher than for similar membranes. These type membranes can be used in petroleum, chemical and even in food industries, because they are made from biodegradable materials. Membranes are easy regenerated by washing in water, which allows it to be used repeatedly. Various industrial applications of membranes Spilltex® will be demonstrated including gravitation separation of wastewater and full-scale water treatment from petroleum products.
- Actual data about bio-based membrane from different research group.
- Preparation methods, microstructure and properties of aerogel and textile membrane.
- Technical information about cotton textile membrane modified by polysaccharide microgels (Biomicrogels®).