Title : Could claims that naringenin are antidiabetic be false?
Diabetes is a disease that negatively affects human life, can cause serious and permanent damage to vital organs if not treated, and is one of the most common causes of death in recent times. Use of plants for medicine, food and cosmetics; It started with the existence of man and has continued until today. Phytochemical compounds obtained from plants have started to find use in the treatment of diabetes in recent years. Naringenin and its glycoside are found in a variety of plants and fruits, including grapefruit, bergamot, sour orange, cherry, tomato, cocoa, and cinnamon.
In some studies, it has been reported that naringenin can decrease glucose adsorption from the intestinal brush border, decrease renal glucose reabsorption, and increase glucose uptake and utilization by muscle and adipose tissues. It has also been reported that naringenin exerts its antidiabetic effect in the pancreas by protecting β cells and increasing the glucose sensing capacity of these cells and their response to glucose. In addition, limited epidemiological studies have been reported to indicate the antidiabetic effects of naringenin. Further research is required to fully understand the effects of naringenin in certain tissues of the body, particularly in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, liver and pancreatic β-cells.
Contrary to this information in the literature, this presentation will focus on the potential of naringenin to aggravate the diabetic condition. While researching the antidiabetic properties of naringenin, I realized that contrary to my expectations, naringenin is actually diabetic. Because the first thing to do when experimentally investigating whether any agent is antidiabetic is; It should be investigated whether it has an inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Because these enzymes are the keystones in carbohydrate digestion and agents that suppress the work of these enzymes are considered antidiabetic because they reduce glucose absorption in the intestines. As a matter of fact, many oral antidiabetic drugs show their effects through this mechanism. In my laboratory work, I noticed that naringenin has an inhibitory effect for the a-glucosidase enzyme, but a strong activator for the a-amylase enzyme. In other words, while the amylase enzyme breaks down the starch, if there is naringenin in the environment, it performs this process much faster. This means that consuming naringenin with foods high in carbohydrates can quickly raise blood glucose levels in these individuals. Since the experiments I have done are at the in vitro level, it may not be right to express a clearer result. However, I argue that recommending both naringenin and naringenin-containing foods as antidiabetic in the literature is a risky approach and should be reopened for discussion.
Audience Takeaway Notes:
- Contrary to what is known so far, naringenin may not be antidiabetic.
- Diabetes patients should be more cautious about foods/food additives that contain high naringenin, such as cinnamon.
- A new field of study is presented for researchers. Collaborative experimental studies are encouraged to shed light on the subject.
- The design of food additives designed using naringenin should be reviewed and they should be updated according to the results after the experimental studies are completed.