Title : A theoretical approach to developing hydrogen embrittlement resistant steel
Many industries are moving away from using fossil fuels, and hydrogen is one alternative energy source. Nowadays, storing and transporting hydrogen is difficult; storage is usually done in a liquid state at -253 °C. At ambient temperature, hydrogen is in a gaseous state, making the storage and transportation of hydrogen in gas hazardous. Similar failures such as hydrogen blistering, hydrogen induced cracking, stress-oriented hydrogen induced cracking, and hydrogen embrittlement have been observed in fossil energy, due to the ingress of hydrogen. This is usually observed when wet H2S is present in the process fluid. The failure due to the ingress of hydrogen is catastrophic, and it is difficult to predict the time of failure. Few researchers have highlighted failure mechanisms such as hydrogen-enhanced decohesion, hydrogen-enhanced localised plasticity, hydrogen-enhanced strain that induces vacancies, and hydride / phase transformation based on microstructural studies. The presence of wet H2S, and ingress hydrogen increase the CAPEX during the engineering phase of the project and the OPEX during operation. Feed metals such as copper, brass, aluminium, and their alloys are immune to hydrogen effects at ambient temperature. This paper will approach theoretically to develop hydrogen embrittlement resistant steel by understanding the microstructural behaviour of hydrogen in metallic materials and identifying the key parameters to control the movement of hydrogen. Also, theoretically, it will attempt to address the subject of whether the present assets of the oil and gas industry can be used for storage and transportation of hydrogen, like cross-country pipelines, with minor surface modification or coating for hydrogen services.
Audience Take Away:
- This paper will provide brief description of effect of ingress of hydrogen in material
- Also, this paper will highlight the possibility of development of steel which will be specifically used for hydrogen service
- This paper will attempt to know whether the present asset such as cross country can be used for transportation of hydrogen services, by modification of internal surfaces of pipeline.